說明:

1. 為增加糧食,農藥被廣泛用於食品生產,但他們可能對消費者健康產生負面影響。無論原料和加工,農藥被發現殘留在各種蔬菜和水果中。一般消費者中最常見的農藥接觸途徑是通過食物消費。

2. 大多數食品都通過各種美味和加工處理後食用。一些文獻研究顯示針對特定活性成分的某些食品加工方法可減少農藥殘留濃度。

3. 過去的回顧文獻沒有是從不同的研究在不同的活性成分得到的結果與實驗設計,分析和分析儀器的差異相結合作為討論的重點。

4. 在本文中,與薈萃分析(meta-analysis)相結合,從33篇的研究結果中,我們提出反應比(response ratios)作為量化農藥殘留量在食品加工效果的方法。藉由熱燙,水煮,罐藏,油炸,榨汁,剝皮,及水果和蔬菜的清洗,殘留量的減少以平均反應比表示為0.100.82。例如反應比為0.1,表示經過處理後,可減少農藥殘留90%,只剩下10%的殘留量。

5. 以家庭中常使用的清洗可達到反應比0.68 (99.5%CI: 0.52-0.89),平均僅能去除約30%的農藥殘留,但最好的報告可達到約50%

6. 另外,熱燙(blanching)比水煮(boiling)的效果好很多(反應比0.21 vs 0.82),熱燙也是僅次於油炸(frying)的最好去除農藥殘留的方法。因為熱燙後迅速撈起食物,農藥殘留在熱水中,因此達到的反應比效果很好。

7. 烘培(baking)反而可能使農藥殘留增加(1.38, 99.5%CI: 0.76~2.51),是處理農藥殘留的最差方式。

8. 各種處理農藥殘留方式其達到的效果以反應比代表由最好到最差依次為油炸(frying) (0.1) > 熱燙(blanching) (0.21) > 剝皮(peeling) (0.41) >榨汁(juicing) (0.59) > 清洗(washing) (0.68) > 罐藏(canning) (0.71) > 水煮(boiling) (0.82) > 烘培(baking) (1.38)

9. 另外該文章提到加成清洗(washing plus),因查不到原始資料,定義不明,不列入討論。

結論:

    由於蔬菜及水果農藥殘留的問題已是不爭的事實,建議應選擇最適宜的處理方式來減少農藥殘留,才不致使個人罹患癌症的風險增加(請見1690.tw網站中相關文章)

    除非能確保蔬菜水果的來源安全可靠,否則最好避免在外食時選擇生菜沙拉,因為其農藥殘留的比例可能很高,基於同樣的理由,也不推薦現在西式餐廳所流行的焗烤蔬菜料理。

http://1690.tw 2016-2-13

參考文獻:

B.M. Keikotlhaile *, P. Spanoghe, W. Steurbaut. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: A meta-analysis approach. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48 (2010) 1–6.

Abstract:

Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after passing through various culinary and processing treatments. A few literature reviews have indicated the general trend of reduction or concentration of pesticide residues by certain methods of food processing for a particular active ingredient. However, no review has focused on combining the obtained results from different studies on different active ingredients with differences in experimental designs, analysts and analysis equipment. In this paper, we present a metaanalysis of response ratios as a possible method of combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residue levels. Reduction of residue levels was indicated by blanching, boiling, canning, frying, juicing, peeling and washing of fruits and vegetables with an average response ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.82. Baking, boiling, canning and juicing indicated both reduction and increases for the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals.


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